U.S. import prices decline 0.6% in August; export prices edge down 0.1%

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                          U.S. IMPORT AND EXPORT PRICE INDEXES - AUGUST 2018


U.S. import prices declined 0.6 percent in August, the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics reported today, 
following a 0.1-percent decrease the previous month. Falling prices for both fuel and nonfuel imports 
contributed to the August decline. Prices for U.S. exports edged down 0.1 percent, after decreasing 0.5 
percent in July. 


Imports

Import prices declined 0.6 percent in August, the largest monthly drop since the index fell 1.3 percent in 
January 2016. The August decrease followed a 0.1-percent decline in July and was only the third monthly 
drop over the past 12 months. Prices for U.S. imports advanced 3.7 percent from August 2017 to August 
2018 and have not recorded a 12-month decline since October 2016. (See table 1.)  


                     New Locality of Destination and Terms of Trade Data Available

New Locality of Destination export price indexes are available in table 8 and new Terms of Trade indexes 
by locality are available in table 9. For more information on the new index series, please see page 5.


Fuel Imports: Import fuel prices decreased 3.9 percent in August, the first decline for the index since a 2.6-
percent drop in March and the largest monthly decline since a 6.8-percent decrease in February 2016. 
Petroleum prices declined 3.9 percent in August, after increasing in each of the previous 4 months, and 
natural gas prices fell 6.3 percent following an 18.0-percent increase in July. Despite the downturn in 
August, fuel prices rose 30.6 percent over the past 12 months. The price index for petroleum increased 33.0 
percent for the year ended in August, and prices for natural gas decreased 11.7 percent over the same period.

All Imports Excluding Fuel: Nonfuel import prices edged down 0.1 percent in August, after decreasing 0.3 
percent in each of the previous 2 months. In August, the decline was driven by falling prices for nonfuel 
industrial supplies and materials, although lower capital goods prices also contributed. In contrast, the price 
index for foods, feeds, and beverages advanced in August. Despite the downward trend over the past 3 
months, nonfuel import prices increased 0.9 percent between August 2017 and August 2018. The increase 
was led by a 6.4-percent rise in nonfuel industrial supplies and materials prices over the 12-month period.  

Nonfuel Industrial Supplies and Materials: The price index for nonfuel industrial supplies and materials fell 
0.8 percent in August following a 1.1-percent decline the previous month. The August decrease was led by a 
1.9-percent drop in unfinished metals prices and a 2.6-percent decline in building materials prices.  

Finished Goods: Import prices for finished goods categories were mostly unchanged in August. The price 
index for capital goods edged down 0.1 percent, after recording no change in July. Prices for consumer 
goods and automotive vehicles recorded no change in August. 

Foods, Feeds, and Beverages: Foods, feeds, and beverages prices advanced 0.4 percent in August following 
a 1.6-percent decline the previous month.


Table A. Percent change in Import and Export Price Indexes, selected categories

Month IMPORTS EXPORTS
All
imports
Fuel
imports
Nonfuel
imports
All
exports
Agri-
cultural
exports
Non-
agricultural
exports

2017

August

0.6 4.0 0.3 0.6 0.0 0.7

September

0.8 5.7 0.3 0.8 -0.7 0.9

October

0.2 0.3 0.1 0.1 2.0 -0.1

November

1.0 9.8 0.0 0.5 -0.7 0.7

December

0.2 3.3 -0.2 0.1 -0.3 0.0

2018

January

0.8 3.3 0.5 0.7 0.0 0.8

February

0.2 -1.8 0.4 0.2 0.6 0.2

March

-0.2 -2.6 0.1 0.4 3.2 0.1

April

0.5 4.0 0.1 0.5 -1.1 0.7

May

0.9 6.1 0.2 0.7 1.6 0.6

June

0.1 2.6 -0.3 0.2 -1.0 0.4

July

-0.1 1.0 -0.3 -0.5 -5.2 0.0

August

-0.6 -3.9 -0.1 -0.1 0.2 -0.2

Aug. 2016 to 2017

2.0 14.4 1.0 2.3 1.7 2.4

Aug. 2017 to 2018

3.7 30.6 0.9 3.6 -1.7 4.1
Exports 

Prices for U.S. exports decreased 0.1 percent in August, after declining 0.5 percent in July. The July 
downturn was the first monthly drop since June 2017. In August, lower prices for nonagricultural exports 
more than offset higher agricultural prices. The price index for overall exports advanced 3.6 percent for the 
year ended in August and has not recorded a 12-month decline since a 0.2-percent decrease in November 
2016. (See table 2.)  

Agricultural Exports: The price index for agricultural exports rose 0.2 percent in August following a 5.2-
percent decline the previous month. In August, higher prices for soybeans, wheat, and corn more than offset 
lower prices for meat, nuts, and fruit. Agricultural prices decreased 1.7 percent for the year ended in August, 
after increasing 1.7 percent between August 2016 and August 2017. Falling prices for soybeans, fruit, and 
meat all contributed to the decline over the past 12 months.   

All Exports Excluding Agriculture: Nonagricultural export prices fell 0.2 percent in August, after 
recording no change in July. The August decrease was led by declining prices for nonagricultural industrial 
supplies and materials, consumer goods, and automotive vehicles. In contrast, the price index for capital 
goods advanced in August. Prices for nonagricultural exports increased 4.1 percent over the past year and 
have not recorded a 12-month decline since November 2016. 

Nonagricultural Industrial Supplies and Materials: Prices for nonagricultural industrial supplies and 
materials decreased 0.6 percent in August following a 0.2-percent decline the previous month. The declines 
in August and July were both driven by lower metals prices. Despite the recent downturn, the index 
advanced 9.7 percent for the year ended in August. 

Finished Goods: Finished goods prices were mixed in August. The price indexes for consumer goods and 
automotive vehicles each fell 0.1 percent. In contrast, capital goods prices advanced 0.2 percent in August, 
after ticking up 0.1 percent in July. The August increase was led by higher prices for electrical generating 
equipment.  


Measures of Import and Export Prices by Locality

Imports by Locality of Origin: The price index for imports from China edged down 0.1 percent for the 
second consecutive month in August. Those were the first monthly declines for the index since a 0.3-percent 
drop in September 2017. Prices for imports from Japan recorded no change in August following a 0.2-
percent increase in July and a 0.1-percent decrease in June. Import prices from Japan rose 1.0 percent over 
the past year, the largest 12-month advance since the index increased 1.0 percent between June 2016 and 
June 2017. The price index for imports from Canada fell 1.5 percent in August, after recording no change 
the previous month. The August decline was led by lower petroleum prices. Prices for imports from the 
European Union and Mexico each decreased 0.1 percent in August. (See table 7.)

Exports by Locality of Destination: Prices for exports to China edged down 0.1 percent in August 
following declines of 2.1 percent in July and 0.6 percent in June. Export prices to Japan declined for the 
third consecutive month in August, falling 0.4 percent, after decreasing 1.2 percent in July and 0.3 percent 
in June. The price index for exports to the European Union fell 0.2 percent in August following 0.1-percent 
drops in each of the previous 2 months. In August, the decline was led by a 0.2-percent decrease in 
manufactured goods prices. In contrast, prices for exports to Canada and Mexico each ticked up 0.1 percent 
in August. (See table 8.)     

Terms of Trade Indexes: Terms of Trade indexes are based on the country, region, or grouping and 
measure the change in the purchasing power of exports relative to imports. The U.S. terms of trade index 
with China recorded no change in August following a 2.0-percent decline in July and a 0.6-percent drop in 
June. Both the July and June decreases were driven by falling export prices to China. The U.S. terms of 
trade index with Japan decreased 0.4 percent in August, after declining 1.3 percent the previous month. The 
index for U.S. terms of trade with the European Union decreased 0.2 percent in August, after edging down 
0.1 percent in July. In August, the U.S. terms of trade index with Canada advanced 1.6 percent and with 
Mexico rose 0.2 percent. (See table 9.)


Import and Export Services

Imports: Import air passenger fares declined 8.8 percent in August, the largest decrease since a 10.6-
percent drop in August 2017. Falling European, Asian, and Latin American/Caribbean fares all contributed 
to the drop in August 2018. Despite the August decline, import air passenger fares advanced 3.5 percent 
over the past year. Prices for import air freight decreased 0.6 percent in August and increased 3.0 percent 
over the past 12 months. (See table 10.)  

Exports: The index for export air passenger fares fell 3.7 percent in August, after increasing 1.6 percent in 
July and 5.0 percent in June. The August downturn was driven by an 11.1-percent drop in European fares. 
Export air passenger fares fell 3.3 percent over the past 12 months, the largest over-the-year decline since a 
5.8-percent drop in December 2017. Export air freight prices decreased 0.6 percent in August and rose 3.4 
percent over the past year.        
                
Import and Export Price Index data for September are scheduled for release on Friday, October 12, 2018 at 
8:30 a.m. (EDT).


                         New Locality of Destination and Terms of Trade Data 

Beginning with the August news release on September 14, the BLS introduced two new data series. Locality 
of Destination price indexes measure export prices based on the country, region, or grouping where items 
are exported. Terms of Trade indexes are based on the country, region, or grouping and measure the relative 
price for exports in terms of import prices and are defined as the all-export price index divided by the 
corresponding all-import price index. For more information on Terms of Trade indexes, please see "U.S. 
Import and Export Prices and the Terms of Trade" at www.bls.gov/opub/btn/archive/us-import-and-export-
price-indexes-and-the-terms-of-trade.pdf. 

The Locality of Destination price indexes are published at the all-export level and also include a breakdown 
by manufacturing industries and nonmanufacturing industries where possible. The countries, regions, or 
groupings for which indexes are published include the Industrialized Countries, the European Union, Latin 
America, the Pacific Rim, Canada, China, Germany, Japan, and Mexico. Indexes by manufacturing 
industries and nonmanufacturing industries are available for all countries and regions except Canada and 
Germany. 

Terms of Trade indexes are available for all countries, regions, and groupings where both the import 
Locality of Origin price index and the export Locality of Destination price index are published. These 
include the Industrialized Countries, the European Union, Latin America, the Pacific Rim, Canada, China, 
Germany, Japan, and Mexico.

The first publication month for the data series for both Locality of Destination price indexes and the Terms 
of Trade indexes is December 2017.

In addition to the new indexes, the numbering of the tables in the Import and Export Price Index news 
release changed. Tables 1 through 7 remain the same, and the new Locality of Destination data are in table 8 
and the new Terms of Trade data are in table 9. The previous table for Selected Transportation Services 
changed from table 8 to table 10. 

Table 1. U.S. import price indexes and percent changes for selected categories of goods: August 2017 to August 2018 [2000=100, unless otherwise noted]
Description End
Use
Relative
import-
ance
July
2018
Index Percent change
July
2018
Aug.
2018
Annual Monthly
Aug.
2017
to
Aug.
2018
Apr.
2018
to
May
2018
May
2018
to
June
2018
June
2018
to
July
2018
July
2018
to
Aug.
2018

All commodities

  100.000 128.2 127.4 3.7 0.9 0.1 -0.1 -0.6

All imports excluding food and fuels (Dec. 2010=100)

  82.322 100.6 100.4 1.3 0.2 -0.1 -0.1 -0.2

All imports excluding petroleum

  88.790 113.4 113.2 1.0 0.1 -0.3 -0.2 -0.2

All imports excluding fuels (Dec. 2001=100)

  88.132 117.5 117.4 0.9 0.2 -0.3 -0.3 -0.1

Foods, feeds, & beverages

0

5.810 175.3 176.0 -3.4 0.4 -2.6 -1.6 0.4

Agricultural foods, feeds & beverages, excluding distilled beverages

00

4.525 190.6 192.0 -4.2 0.6 -2.8 -2.2 0.7

Nonagricultural foods (fish, distilled beverages)

01

1.285 141.1 140.5 -0.2 -0.3 -1.9 0.6 -0.4

Industrial supplies & materials

1

26.233 200.7 196.3 16.1 3.1 1.3 -0.1 -2.2

Industrial supplies & materials excluding petroleum

  15.086 158.8 157.2 6.0 0.2 0.3 -0.7 -1.0

Industrial supplies & materials excluding fuels (Dec. 2001=100)

  14.354 181.1 179.6 6.4 0.9 0.2 -1.1 -0.8

Industrial supplies & materials, durable

  9.146 172.5 170.3 6.0 1.5 0.3 -1.7 -1.3

Industrial supplies & materials nondurable excluding petroleum

  5.878 141.5 140.9 6.2 -1.8 0.1 0.7 -0.4

Fuels & lubricants

10

11.868 232.9 223.9 30.6 6.1 2.6 1.0 -3.9

Petroleum & petroleum products

100

11.210 257.0 247.0 33.0 7.4 2.8 0.7 -3.9

Crude

10000

8.117 272.3 257.2 36.4 8.8 1.8 0.9 -5.5

Fuels, n.e.s.-coals & gas

101

0.477 95.0 90.3 -1.6 -17.0 1.3 10.1 -4.9

Gas-natural

10110

0.477 70.3 65.9 -11.7 -24.7 -5.2 18.0 -6.3

Paper & paper base stocks

11

0.583 120.3 121.5 12.8 0.3 1.5 1.4 1.0

Materials associated with nondurable supplies & materials

12

4.699 162.6 162.5 6.4 -0.2 -0.2 -0.4 -0.1

Selected building materials

13

1.685 159.5 155.3 3.4 1.9 0.4 -2.0 -2.6

Unfinished metals related to durable goods

14

3.919 238.4 233.8 8.0 1.7 0.6 -2.9 -1.9

Finished metals related to durable goods

15

1.806 162.6 161.6 6.2 1.8 -0.7 -0.5 -0.6

Nonmetals related to durable goods

16

1.675 113.7 114.4 4.0 0.2 0.8 0.5 0.6

Capital goods

2

26.398 89.4 89.3 0.1 -0.1 -0.2 0.0 -0.1

Electric generating equipment

20

3.211 118.0 118.2 1.2 0.3 -0.3 0.1 0.2

Nonelectrical machinery

21

20.975 81.8 81.7 -0.1 -0.1 -0.2 -0.1 -0.1

Transportation equipment excluding motor vehicles (Dec. 2001=100)

22

2.211 134.7 134.7 0.3 -0.4 -0.1 -0.1 0.0

Automotive vehicles, parts & engines

3

15.637 110.4 110.4 0.2 -0.1 -0.1 0.0 0.0

Consumer goods, excluding automotives

4

25.922 107.6 107.6 0.6 0.2 -0.3 0.3 0.0

Nondurables, manufactured

40

12.806 123.8 123.8 1.9 0.5 -0.1 0.9 0.0

Durables, manufactured

41

11.850 92.7 92.6 -0.8 -0.2 -0.2 -0.2 -0.1

Nonmanufactured consumer goods

42

1.267 113.8 113.8 -0.5 0.7 -2.1 -1.0 0.0

NOTES: Data may be revised in each of the 3 months after original publication.
Dash = Not available

Table 2. U.S. export price indexes and percent changes for selected categories of goods: August 2017 to August 2018 [2000=100, unless otherwise noted]
Description End
Use
Relative
import-
ance
July
2018
Index Percent change
July
2018
Aug.
2018
Annual Monthly
Aug.
2017
to
Aug.
2018
Apr.
2018
to
May
2018
May
2018
to
June
2018
June
2018
to
July
2018
July
2018
to
Aug.
2018

All commodities

  100.000 127.4 127.3 3.6 0.7 0.2 -0.5 -0.1

Agricultural commodities

  9.543 174.6 175.0 -1.7 1.6 -1.0 -5.2 0.2

All exports excluding food and fuels (Dec. 2010=100)

  80.776 101.7 101.5 2.3 0.2 0.1 -0.2 -0.2

Nonagricultural commodities

  90.457 123.8 123.6 4.1 0.6 0.4 0.0 -0.2

Foods, feeds, & beverages

0

8.934 176.3 177.3 -1.7 1.1 -1.0 -4.8 0.6

Agricultural foods, feeds & beverages, excluding distilled beverages

00

8.303 174.3 175.3 -2.3 1.5 -0.8 -5.3 0.6

Nonagricultural foods (fish, distilled beverages)

01

0.630 214.0 216.0 7.6 -4.5 -3.0 2.6 0.9

Industrial supplies & materials

1

32.133 163.9 162.9 9.4 1.8 1.0 -0.4 -0.6

Industrial supplies & materials, durable

  10.433 167.0 163.8 3.3 -0.1 0.5 -1.2 -1.9

Industrial supplies & materials, nondurable

  21.701 162.7 162.8 12.6 2.8 1.2 0.1 0.1

Agricultural industrial supplies & materials

10

1.240 182.4 179.4 2.7 2.6 -2.1 -5.0 -1.6

Nonagricultural industrial supplies & materials

  30.893 163.3 162.4 9.7 1.8 1.1 -0.2 -0.6

Fuels & lubricants

11

10.290 205.8 206.6 20.5 5.0 2.8 0.2 0.4

Nonagricultural supplies & materials excluding fuels & building materials

12

19.578 161.2 159.6 5.2 0.2 0.3 -0.4 -1.0

Selected building materials

13

1.024 125.0 123.4 2.1 0.5 0.2 0.2 -1.3

Capital goods

2

36.445 109.9 110.1 1.9 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.2

Electrical generating equipment

20

3.872 116.8 118.1 4.4 0.3 0.4 -0.5 1.1

Nonelectrical machinery

21

23.453 94.9 95.0 1.1 0.0 0.0 0.1 0.1

Transportation equipment excluding motor vehicles (Dec. 2001=100)

22

9.120 176.5 176.4 3.2 0.2 0.1 0.1 -0.1

Automotive vehicles, parts & engines

3

10.044 114.1 114.0 0.5 0.1 -0.1 -0.1 -0.1

Consumer goods, excluding automotives

4

12.444 109.8 109.7 0.5 0.0 -0.1 0.0 -0.1

Nondurables, manufactured

40

6.052 106.4 106.4 1.1 -0.1 -0.6 0.1 0.0

Durables, manufactured

41

4.961 107.7 107.5 -0.3 0.0 0.3 0.0 -0.2

NOTES: Data may be revised in each of the 3 months after original publication.
Dash = Not available

Table 3. U.S. import price indexes and percent changes for selected industries: August 2017 to August 2018 [December 2005=100, unless otherwise noted]
Description NAICS Relative
import-
ance
July
2018
Index Percent change
July
2018
Aug.
2018
Annual Monthly
Aug.
2017
to
Aug.
2018
Apr.
2018
to
May
2018
May
2018
to
June
2018
June
2018
to
July
2018
July
2018
to
Aug.
2018

Nonmanufacturing

  10.454 120.8 115.7 21.8 5.7 -0.2 0.4 -4.2

Agriculture, forestry, fishing and hunting

11

1.788 164.7 167.5 -10.5 0.5 -7.4 -4.4 1.7

Crop production

111

1.417 173.0 176.0 -12.5 1.7 -8.1 -5.6 1.7

Animal production (Dec. 2014=100)

112

0.187 76.0 76.7 -5.1 0.8 -4.2 -0.9 0.9

Mining

21

8.666 117.5 111.1 32.3 7.0 1.6 1.5 -5.4

Oil and gas extraction

211

8.418 117.8 111.2 33.3 7.3 1.5 1.5 -5.6

Manufacturing

  89.262 112.5 112.4 2.0 0.3 0.0 -0.1 -0.1

Manufacturing, part 1

31

11.212 124.9 124.8 0.2 0.2 -0.2 -0.2 -0.1

Food manufacturing

311

3.351 155.5 155.2 -1.0 0.3 -1.3 -0.7 -0.2

Beverage and tobacco product manufacturing

312

1.093 121.8 121.9 2.5 0.2 0.2 0.1 0.1

Textile mills (Dec. 2011=100)

313

0.380 100.1 100.2 1.3 -0.4 -0.3 0.3 0.1

Textile product mills

314

0.911 109.4 109.7 0.6 0.0 -0.3 0.0 0.3

Apparel manufacturing

315

3.819 111.6 111.5 0.4 0.1 0.3 -0.1 -0.1

Leather and allied product manufacturing

316

1.659 123.5 123.5 0.6 0.4 0.1 0.1 0.0

Manufacturing, part 2

32

18.514 129.5 129.6 7.6 1.0 0.9 0.4 0.1

Wood product manufacturing

321

1.062 144.0 138.6 4.7 3.1 0.5 -2.9 -3.8

Paper manufacturing

322

1.057 113.6 115.5 9.6 0.3 2.0 1.5 1.7

Printing and related support activities (Dec. 2016=100)

323

0.214 104.1 104.1 5.5 -0.1 2.9 0.4 0.0

Petroleum and coal products manufacturing

324

2.828 104.1 105.0 26.4 3.6 5.7 -0.1 0.9

Chemical manufacturing

325

10.187 141.8 142.0 5.3 0.6 -0.3 0.8 0.1

Plastics and rubber products manufacturing

326

2.180 119.7 119.6 0.9 0.1 -0.1 0.1 -0.1

Nonmetallic mineral product manufacturing

327

0.986 131.3 131.1 2.2 0.1 0.5 0.2 -0.2

Manufacturing, part 3

33

59.536 104.8 104.6 0.7 0.1 -0.2 -0.2 -0.2

Primary metal manufacturing

331

4.472 158.3 155.4 8.3 2.1 0.1 -2.5 -1.8

Fabricated metal product manufacturing

332

3.083 128.0 127.8 3.2 0.4 -0.2 -0.2 -0.2

Machinery manufacturing

333

6.715 118.7 118.8 1.2 0.0 -0.3 0.1 0.1

Computer and electronic product manufacturing

334

16.754 75.0 74.9 -1.4 -0.4 -0.3 -0.1 -0.1

Electrical equipment, appliance, and component manufacturing

335

4.866 116.1 116.2 1.0 0.3 -0.2 0.2 0.1

Transportation equipment manufacturing

336

16.603 109.5 109.4 0.2 -0.2 0.0 0.0 -0.1

Furniture and related product manufacturing

337

1.762 117.2 117.4 1.6 0.3 0.3 0.0 0.2

Miscellaneous manufacturing

339

5.281 118.8 118.3 0.5 0.1 -0.2 0.0 -0.4

NOTES: Data may be revised in each of the 3 months after original publication.
Dash = Not available

Table 4. U.S. export price indexes and percent changes for selected industries: August 2017 to August 2018 [December 2005=100, unless otherwise noted]
Description NAICS Relative
import-
ance
July
2018
Index Percent change
July
2018
Aug.
2018
Annual Monthly
Aug.
2017
to
Aug.
2018
Apr.
2018
to
May
2018
May
2018
to
June
2018
June
2018
to
July
2018
July
2018
to
Aug.
2018

Nonmanufacturing

  8.216 136.2 138.2 4.4 2.0 1.2 -5.7 1.5

Agriculture, forestry, fishing and hunting

11

4.832 147.6 150.0 -1.4 1.8 -1.8 -8.7 1.6

Crop production

111

4.550 153.2 156.2 -1.2 2.5 -1.7 -9.0 2.0

Mining

21

3.384 93.5 94.7 13.7 2.4 6.1 -1.1 1.3

Mining (except oil and gas)

212

1.140 113.2 108.9 5.0 1.8 -0.2 -1.2 -3.8

Manufacturing

  90.182 117.4 117.2 3.7 0.6 0.2 0.0 -0.2

Manufacturing, part 1

31

6.892 140.0 139.0 -0.4 0.4 -0.2 -0.8 -0.7

Food manufacturing

311

4.692 157.5 156.5 -1.4 0.1 -0.2 -0.8 -0.6

Beverage and tobacco product manufacturing

312

0.691 120.8 116.7 2.3 3.3 -1.2 -3.6 -3.4

Textile mills (Dec. 2016=100)

313

0.643 105.4 105.8 5.0 0.0 1.1 0.5 0.4

Leather and allied product manufacturing (Dec. 2016=100)

316

0.259 94.0 93.6 -3.3 -0.9 -1.0 -0.7 -0.4

Manufacturing, part 2

32

25.815 119.6 119.4 9.7 1.8 0.3 0.3 -0.2

Wood product manufacturing (Dec. 2017=100)

321

0.536 103.2 102.3 0.2 -0.5 -0.7 -0.9

Paper manufacturing

322

1.714 132.2 132.0 9.3 1.6 0.2 0.9 -0.2

Petroleum and coal products manufacturing

324

6.959 123.5 122.6 24.7 6.2 0.9 0.9 -0.7

Chemical manufacturing

325

13.303 119.9 119.8 5.4 0.3 -0.1 0.3 -0.1

Plastics and rubber products manufacturing

326

2.233 116.0 116.0 1.5 0.1 1.0 -0.2 0.0

Nonmetallic mineral product manufacturing

327

0.827 116.8 116.7 2.7 0.1 -0.1 -0.1 -0.1

Manufacturing, part 3

33

57.476 114.1 114.0 1.6 0.1 0.1 -0.1 -0.1

Primary metal manufacturing

331

3.897 144.8 141.7 3.1 -0.1 0.3 -2.0 -2.1

Fabricated metal product manufacturing

332

3.040 141.1 140.9 2.0 0.1 0.1 0.4 -0.1

Machinery manufacturing

333

8.918 127.3 127.7 1.4 -0.1 0.1 0.1 0.3

Computer and electronic product manufacturing

334

13.954 83.4 83.3 0.6 0.1 -0.1 0.1 -0.1

Electrical equipment, appliance, and component manufacturing

335

3.839 117.7 118.5 4.2 0.6 0.5 -0.3 0.7

Transportation equipment manufacturing

336

18.076 127.0 126.9 1.8 0.2 0.1 0.0 -0.1

Furniture and related product manufacturing (Dec. 2011=100)

337

0.405 121.1 121.1 3.2 0.0 0.3 1.8 0.0

Miscellaneous manufacturing

339

5.347 120.6 120.5 1.1 0.0 0.4 0.1 -0.1

NOTES: Data may be revised in each of the 3 months after original publication.
Dash = Not available

Table 5. U.S. import price indexes and percent changes for selected categories of goods: August 2017 to August 2018 [2000=100, unless otherwise noted]
Description Harmo-
nized
system
Relative
importance
July
2018
Index Percent change
July
2018
Aug.
2018
Annual Monthly
Aug.
2017
to
Aug.
2018
Apr.
2018
to
May
2018
May
2018
to
June
2018
June
2018
to
July
2018
July
2018
to
Aug.
2018

Live animals; animal products

I

1.353 193.2 193.6 -0.5 0.2 -2.6 0.4 0.2

Meat and edible meat offal

02

0.372 249.0 247.2 0.5 0.8 -1.3 0.2 -0.7

Fish and crustaceans, molluscs and other aquatic invertebrates

03

0.691 139.3 138.2 -1.5 -0.1 -3.9 0.6 -0.8

Vegetable products

II

1.741 191.5 196.0 -11.6 1.0 -7.4 -5.1 2.3

Edible vegetables, roots, and tubers

07

0.337 362.7 362.6 -20.3 -2.2 -15.9 1.5 0.0

Edible fruit and nuts; peel of citrus fruit or melons

08

0.700 112.3 117.7 -12.1 2.2 -5.3 -9.9 4.8

Coffee, tea, mate and spices

09

0.315 210.6 209.2 -10.3 0.6 -1.9 -1.1 -0.7

Animal or vegetable fats and oils (Dec. 2009=100)

III

0.257 98.9 97.8 -16.0 -3.0 -4.5 -1.3 -1.1

Prepared foodstuffs, beverages, and tobacco

IV

2.775 166.1 165.6 2.0 0.6 -0.4 -0.6 -0.3

Sugars and sugar confectionary (Dec. 2012=100)

17

0.193 87.7 87.5 1.7 -0.9 -0.2 -0.2 -0.2

Cocoa and cocoa preparations (Dec. 2009=100)

18

0.206 99.7 96.5 1.0 2.3 -2.7 -1.2 -3.2

Preparations of vegetables, fruit, nuts, or other parts of plants

20

0.367 171.8 172.5 2.3 0.9 0.7 0.3 0.4

Miscellaneous edible preparations (Dec. 2017=100)

21

0.206 103.1 103.1 0.0 0.1 1.0 0.0

Beverages, spirits, and vinegar

22

1.034 132.0 132.1 2.8 0.2 0.1 0.2 0.1

Mineral products

V

11.689 233.3 224.2 30.8 6.2 2.8 1.2 -3.9

Mineral fuels, oils and residuals, bituminous substances and mineral waxes

27

11.428 231.1 221.9 31.5 6.3 2.8 1.1 -4.0

Products of the chemical or allied industries

VI

9.533 159.7 159.7 5.5 0.6 -0.3 0.9 0.0

Inorganic chemicals

28

0.619 317.0 316.7 16.9 -1.2 1.0 0.7 -0.1

Organic chemicals

29

2.430 134.2 133.8 8.4 1.0 -0.1 0.4 -0.3

Pharmaceutical products

30

4.484 153.9 154.1 3.7 0.9 -0.6 1.5 0.1

Fertilizers (Dec. 2009=100)

31

0.259 81.5 82.6 17.8 2.1 0.2 -0.5 1.3

Tanning extracts; dye, pigments, varnish, paints & putty (Dec. 2011=100)

32

0.184 109.1 107.3 -1.5 -0.2 0.7 1.0 -1.6

Essential oils and resinoids (Dec. 2016=100)

33

0.568 102.2 102.2 0.8 -0.2 -0.6 -0.7 0.0

Miscellaneous chemical products

38

0.633 107.3 107.0 1.9 -0.1 0.0 0.2 -0.3

Plastics and articles thereof; rubber and articles thereof

VII

3.386 141.4 141.9 1.5 -0.1 0.4 -0.1 0.4

Plastics and articles thereof

39

2.232 144.7 145.5 2.5 0.0 0.8 0.2 0.6

Rubber and articles thereof

40

1.153 137.0 137.1 -0.2 -0.3 -0.3 -0.6 0.1

Raw hides, skins, leather, furskins, travel goods, etc

VIII

0.632 125.7 125.8 1.7 1.1 -0.1 -0.1 0.1

Articles of leather; travel goods, bags, etc. of various materials

42

0.598 131.5 131.6 2.0 1.2 0.0 0.0 0.1

Wood, wood charcoal, cork, straw, basketware and wickerwork

IX

1.094 175.1 168.7 4.7 2.9 0.4 -2.9 -3.7

Wood and articles of wood; wood charcoal (Dec. 2014=100)

44

1.071 121.0 116.5 4.9 3.0 0.4 -3.0 -3.7

Woodpulp, recovered paper, and paper products

X

1.115 119.9 120.8 9.5 0.3 1.6 1.7 0.8

Paper and paperboard; articles of paper pulp, paper or paperboard

48

0.732 110.7 111.5 8.3 0.4 1.1 2.2 0.7

Printed matter (Dec. 2015=100)

49

0.213 111.0 111.0 6.2 -0.1 3.5 0.5 0.0

Textile and textile articles

XI

4.961 114.3 114.2 0.7 -0.1 0.0 0.0 -0.1

Articles of apparel and clothing accessories, knitted or crocheted

61

1.996 104.2 104.0 0.1 0.0 0.3 -0.1 -0.2

Articles of apparel and clothing accessories, not knitted or crocheted

62

1.691 119.8 119.9 0.8 0.2 0.3 0.0 0.1

Made-up or worn textile articles

63

0.634 103.9 104.3 0.6 0.0 -0.3 0.0 0.4

Headgear, umbrellas, artificial flowers, etc.

XII

1.370 122.5 122.5 0.6 0.0 0.2 0.2 0.0

Footwear and parts of such articles

64

1.146 121.2 121.2 0.2 0.0 0.2 0.1 0.0

Stone, plaster, cement, asbestos, ceramics, glass etc.

XIII

0.919 132.1 131.8 1.2 0.1 0.0 -0.1 -0.2

Articles of stone, plaster, cement, asbestos, or mica (Dec. 2015=100)

68

0.332 100.4 99.6 3.1 0.2 0.7 0.0 -0.8

Ceramic products

69

0.254 135.1 135.1 -0.4 0.1 -0.1 0.0 0.0

Glass and glassware

70

0.332 131.3 131.4 0.4 -0.1 -0.6 -0.2 0.1

Pearls, stones, precious metals, imitation jewelry, and coins

XIV

2.998 171.3 168.5 -1.2 -0.4 0.2 -1.7 -1.6

Base metals and articles of base metals

XV

5.635 183.0 181.3 7.5 1.9 0.2 -1.2 -0.9

Iron and steel

72

1.364 232.4 230.1 16.7 1.6 0.0 0.4 -1.0

Articles of iron or steel

73

1.598 152.8 152.7 5.9 0.2 0.1 -0.2 -0.1

Copper and articles thereof

74

0.403 293.6 286.3 0.3 8.0 -0.9 -7.1 -2.5

Aluminum and articles thereof

76

0.953 141.4 139.4 8.1 5.1 0.0 -1.8 -1.4

Tools, implements, cutlery, spoons and forks, of base metal; parts thereof

82

0.414 122.9 122.9 -0.1 0.2 -0.2 0.0 0.0

Miscellaneous articles of base metal

83

0.511 137.2 137.2 0.3 0.1 -0.5 0.2 0.0

Machinery, electrical equipment, TV image and sound recorders, parts, etc.

XVI

28.528 80.4 80.4 -0.4 -0.1 -0.2 -0.1 0.0

Machinery and mechanical appliances; parts thereof

84

13.995 86.8 86.8 0.6 -0.1 -0.1 -0.1 0.0

Electrical machinery and equip, sound and TV recorders & reproducers, parts

85

14.533 74.4 74.5 -1.3 -0.1 -0.3 -0.3 0.1

Vehicles, aircraft, vessels and associated transport equipment

XVII

13.853 114.3 114.3 0.4 -0.2 0.0 0.0 0.0

Motor vehicles and their parts

87

12.667 113.4 113.3 0.4 -0.1 0.0 0.1 -0.1

Aircraft, spacecraft, and parts thereof (Dec. 2002=100)

88

1.096 115.4 115.3 -0.1 -0.8 0.1 -0.2 -0.1

Optical, photo, measuring, medical & musical instruments; & timepieces

XVIII

3.805 102.3 102.0 0.2 -0.3 -0.5 -0.2 -0.3

Optical, photographic, measuring and medical instruments

90

3.520 98.9 98.6 0.3 -0.3 -0.4 -0.2 -0.3

Clocks and watches and parts thereof

91

0.226 142.2 141.8 -1.5 -1.1 -1.5 0.4 -0.3

Miscellaneous manufactured articles

XX

4.269 112.4 112.6 1.4 0.2 0.2 0.1 0.2

Furniture & stuffed furnishings; lamps & lighting fittings, nesoi; prefab bldgs

94

2.690 118.2 118.4 1.4 0.1 0.2 0.1 0.2

Toys, games and sports equipment; parts and accessories thereof

95

1.298 102.7 103.0 1.7 0.5 0.0 0.1 0.3

Miscellaneous manufactured articles

96

0.281 129.6 129.5 -0.2 0.0 0.5 0.3 -0.1

NOTES: Data may be revised in each of the 3 months after original publication.
Dash = Not available

Table 6. U.S. export price indexes and percent changes for selected categories of goods: August 2017 to August 2018 [2000=100, unless otherwise noted]
Description Harmo-
nized
system
Relative
import-
ance
July
2018
Index Percent change
July
2018
Aug.
2018
Annual Monthly
Aug.
2017
to
Aug.
2018
Apr.
2018
to
May
2018
May
2018
to
June
2018
June
2018
to
July
2018
July
2018
to
Aug.
2018

Live animals; animal products

I

1.940 209.9 207.9 -2.1 -1.0 -0.6 0.9 -1.0

Meat & edible meat offal (Dec. 2006=100)

02

1.167 165.6 162.5 -5.1 -0.8 -0.9 0.6 -1.9

Fish and crustaceans, mollusks and aquatic invertebrates (Dec. 2016=100)

03

0.418 118.7 119.4 9.0 -5.4 -3.4 3.9 0.6

Dairy products, eggs and honey (Dec. 2017=100)

04

0.279 102.1 103.0 4.6 4.4 -1.6 0.9

Vegetable products

II

4.462 185.4 188.3 -1.9 2.2 -1.4 -8.9 1.6

Edible fruit and nuts; peel of citrus fruit or melons

08

0.835 135.0 131.1 -6.3 -5.4 2.1 -5.3 -2.9

Cereals

10

1.380 187.4 196.8 8.7 5.5 -2.6 -7.7 5.0

Oilseeds and misc. grains, seeds, fruits, plants, straw and fodder

12

1.760 187.4 191.9 -4.3 1.6 -2.2 -11.7 2.4

Prepared foodstuffs, beverages, and tobacco

IV

3.047 150.8 150.5 1.0 1.0 -0.7 -1.6 -0.2

Preparations of vegetables, fruit, nuts or other parts of plants (Dec. 2009=100)

20

0.341 116.3 116.5 -0.4 -0.3 -0.5 -0.9 0.2

Miscellaneous edible preparations (Dec. 2017=100)

21

0.557 95.8 97.9 -0.1 0.2 -1.6 2.2

Beverages, spirits, and vinegar (Dec. 2008=100)

22

0.532 109.6 109.9 -2.0 1.0 -0.3 -0.6 0.3

Residues and waste from the food industries; prepared animal feed

23

0.731 217.9 210.8 10.3 3.7 -2.1 -4.5 -3.3

Mineral products

V

10.679 247.4 247.1 21.0 4.9 2.7 0.2 -0.1

Ores, slag and ash (Dec. 2012=100)

26

0.537 106.7 97.8 2.6 -0.6 -0.9 -2.1 -8.3

Mineral fuels, oils and residuals, bituminous substances and mineral waxes

27

9.963 238.7 239.5 22.4 5.3 3.0 0.3 0.3

Products of the chemical or allied industries

VI

10.753 139.2 138.8 3.1 0.2 -0.1 0.0 -0.3

Inorganic chemicals

28

0.699 157.8 152.8 -6.1 -0.5 0.0 -5.5 -3.2

Organic chemicals

29

2.580 147.1 146.9 10.5 1.2 0.9 0.7 -0.1

Pharmaceutical products

30

3.184 106.6 106.5 1.1 -0.1 -1.0 0.1 -0.1

Fertilizers (Dec. 2016=100)

31

0.257 120.7 120.7 13.9 0.6 -1.8 0.2 0.0

Tanning or dyeing extracts, dyes, paints varnish, putty, & inks (Dec. 2015=100)

32

0.531 102.6 102.6 4.4 1.1 -0.3 0.2 0.0

Essential oils and resinoids; perfumery cosmetic or toilet preparations

33

0.807 130.8 130.9 -1.1 -0.7 0.4 -0.2 0.1

Soap; lubricants; waxes, polishing or scouring products; candles, pastes

34

0.489 119.3 118.5 -8.7 -0.2 0.1 -0.2 -0.7

Miscellaneous chemical products

38

1.823 154.2 154.5 7.1 0.2 -0.1 1.0 0.2

Plastics and articles thereof; rubber and articles thereof

VII

5.201 145.4 145.5 6.5 0.1 0.4 0.3 0.1

Plastics and articles thereof

39

4.318 142.0 142.0 7.1 0.1 0.4 0.4 0.0

Rubber and articles thereof

40

0.883 158.6 159.0 4.1 0.8 0.4 -0.6 0.3

Wood, wood charcoal, cork, straw, baskets and wickerwork (Dec. 2014=100)

IX

0.680 105.9 103.6 4.4 0.6 -0.3 -0.6 -2.2

Woodpulp, recovered paper, and paper products

X

2.114 135.4 134.8 4.2 1.8 0.8 1.2 -0.4

Woodpulp and recovered paper

47

0.673 147.0 144.7 -0.3 3.5 2.2 2.7 -1.6

Paper and paperboard; articles of paper pulp, paper or paperboard

48

1.106 129.9 130.1 6.5 1.5 -0.2 0.7 0.2

Printed material (Dec. 2014=100)

49

0.336 108.1 108.1 6.5 0.0 0.8 -0.3 0.0

Textile and textile articles

XI

1.677 124.7 126.1 5.0 1.2 -0.7 -1.0 1.1

Cotton, including yarns and woven fabrics thereof

52

0.460 137.0 140.2 10.1 2.8 -2.6 -3.2 2.3

Stone, plaster, cement, asbestos, ceramics, glass etc.

XIII

0.801 124.1 124.0 0.9 0.1 0.0 -0.1 -0.1

Articles of stone, plaster, cement, asbestos, or mica (Dec. 2015=100)

68

0.268 102.1 102.1 0.8 0.1 -0.1 0.0 0.0

Glass and glassware

70

0.409 99.3 99.2 0.9 0.0 0.0 0.0 -0.1

Pearls, stones, precious metals, imitation jewelry, and coins

XIV

4.002 235.1 232.0 -0.7 -0.9 0.2 -1.5 -1.3

Base metals and articles of base metals

XV

4.991 163.9 161.2 5.1 0.2 0.5 -0.7 -1.6

Iron and steel

72

1.130 182.2 181.5 13.4 -0.1 0.3 -0.2 -0.4

Copper and articles thereof

74

0.554 196.1 186.2 3.7 -1.8 4.2 -4.6 -5.0

Aluminum and articles thereof

76

0.965 120.4 113.8 1.9 2.8 -0.1 -2.7 -5.5

Tools, implements, cutlery, spoons and forks, of base metal (Dec. 2015=100)

82

0.315 100.0 100.0 0.5 0.0 0.0 0.1 0.0

Miscellaneous articles of base metal

83

0.343 153.0 153.0 3.4 0.3 0.3 0.1 0.0

Machinery, electrical equipment, TV image and sound recorders, parts, etc.

XVI

27.458 97.6 97.7 1.3 0.2 0.1 0.0 0.1

Machinery and mechanical appliances; parts thereof

84

15.767 115.2 115.0 0.9 0.0 0.1 0.1 -0.2

Electrical machinery and equipment and parts and accessories thereof

85

11.692 78.7 79.0 2.1 0.4 0.1 0.0 0.4

Vehicles, aircraft, vessels and associated transport equipment

XVII

14.235 135.3 135.4 1.8 0.2 0.0 0.1 0.1

Motor vehicles and their parts

87

8.258 116.4 116.2 0.8 0.1 -0.1 0.1 -0.2

Optical, photo, measuring, medical & musical instruments; & timepieces

XVIII

5.933 109.5 109.6 2.7 0.1 0.1 0.0 0.1

Miscellaneous manufactured articles

XX

1.395 112.9 112.8 0.4 -0.2 0.0 0.7 -0.1

Furniture; stuffed furnishings; lamps and lighting fittings nesoi;

94

0.819 130.2 130.2 1.6 -0.3 0.1 1.2 0.0

Toys, games and sports equipment; parts and accessories thereof

95

0.415 87.4 87.4 -1.5 -0.1 -0.1 0.0 0.0

NOTES: Data may be revised in each of the 3 months after original publication.
Dash = Not available

Table 7. U.S. import price indexes and percent changes by locality of origin: August 2017 to August 2018 [2000=100, unless otherwise noted]
Description Relative
import-
ance
July
2018
Index Percent change
July
2018
Aug.
2018
Annual Monthly
Aug.
2017
to
Aug.
2018
Apr.
2018
to
May
2018
May
2018
to
June
2018
June
2018
to
July
2018
July
2018
to
Aug.
2018

Industrialized Countries

100.000 126.1 125.3 4.7 1.2 -0.2 0.2 -0.6

Nonmanufacturing

9.622 170.9 163.7 21.8 9.0 -0.9 3.0 -4.2

Manufacturing

89.842 122.0 121.7 3.1 0.5 -0.2 -0.1 -0.2

Canada

100.000 137.7 135.6 8.8 3.2 0.2 0.0 -1.5

Nonmanufacturing

25.393 163.2 156.3 21.7 9.5 -1.1 3.0 -4.2

Manufacturing

73.715 134.4 133.7 4.9 1.4 0.7 -1.0 -0.5

European Union

100.000 137.3 137.2 2.7 0.3 -0.3 0.0 -0.1

Manufacturing

98.950 133.8 133.7 2.7 0.3 -0.3 0.1 -0.1

France (Dec. 2003=100)

100.000 128.6 128.6 3.0 0.3 -0.3 -0.1 0.0

Germany (Dec. 2003=100)

100.000 111.9 112.0 -2.5 0.0 -0.3 -0.2 0.1

United Kingdom (Dec. 2003=100)

100.000 122.1 121.6 3.1 0.6 0.3 -0.4 -0.4

Latin America

100.000 152.1 150.6 4.7 1.1 -0.5 0.2 -1.0

Nonmanufacturing

19.588 277.6 269.4 18.8 5.1 -1.3 1.1 -3.0

Manufacturing

80.143 122.8 122.3 1.6 0.2 -0.2 -0.1 -0.4

Mexico (Dec. 2003=100)

100.000 128.5 128.4 0.9 0.4 -0.2 -0.4 -0.1

Nonmanufacturing (Dec. 2008=100)

9.163 139.8 139.6 9.1 5.0 -1.9 1.9 -0.1

Manufacturing (Dec. 2008=100)

90.583 88.3 88.2 0.1 0.0 0.0 -0.6 -0.1

Pacific Rim (Dec. 2003=100)

100.000 99.3 99.2 0.7 0.2 0.0 -0.1 -0.1

China (Dec. 2003=100)

100.000 100.4 100.3 0.2 0.1 0.0 -0.1 -0.1

Japan

100.000 96.7 96.7 1.0 0.0 -0.1 0.2 0.0

Asian NICs

100.000 89.3 88.9 2.5 0.6 -0.2 -0.2 -0.4

ASEAN (Dec. 2003=100)

100.000 98.8 98.9 1.0 0.4 -0.2 -0.1 0.1

Asia Near East (Dec. 2003=100)

100.000 192.0 185.2 24.7 3.1 2.4 0.2 -3.5

NOTES: Data may be revised in each of the 3 months after original publication.
Regions are not mutually exclusive.
Dash = Not available

Table 8. U.S. export price indexes and percent changes by locality of destination: August 2017 to August 2018 [December 2017=100, unless otherwise noted]
Description Relative
import-
ance
July
2018
Index Percent change
July
2018
Aug.
2018
Annual Monthly
Aug.
2017
to
Aug.
2018
Apr.
2018
to
May
2018
May
2018
to
June
2018
June
2018
to
July
2018
July
2018
to
Aug.
2018

Industrialized Countries

100.000 102.4 102.3 0.6 -0.1 -0.1 -0.1

Nonmanufacturing

6.430 98.4 99.1 1.2 -2.2 2.7 0.7

Manufacturing

92.317 102.8 102.6 0.5 0.1 -0.2 -0.2

Canada

100.000 103.8 103.9 0.8 0.2 -0.1 0.1

European Union

100.000 103.3 103.1 0.3 -0.1 -0.1 -0.2

Nonmanufacturing

4.722 97.9 98.7 -1.4 0.1 -5.3 0.8

Manufacturing

94.250 103.6 103.4 0.4 -0.2 0.2 -0.2

Germany

100.000 101.6 101.3 -0.1 -0.4 -0.2 -0.3

Latin America

100.000 103.7 103.7 1.3 0.4 0.0 0.0

Nonmanufacturing

6.318 103.3 105.4 3.7 0.4 -2.8 2.0

Manufacturing

93.340 103.7 103.6 1.1 0.4 0.2 -0.1

Mexico

100.000 102.7 102.8 0.9 0.3 0.1 0.1

Nonmanufacturing

6.144 102.5 104.0 3.5 0.1 -2.3 1.5

Manufacturing

93.457 102.7 102.7 0.7 0.4 0.2 0.0

Pacific Rim

100.000 100.7 100.2 0.5 -0.3 -1.1 -0.5

Nonmanufacturing

11.794 95.8 96.0 2.1 -2.9 -7.1 0.2

Manufacturing

85.575 101.3 100.9 0.2 0.0 -0.2 -0.4

China

100.000 100.1 100.0 0.3 -0.6 -2.1 -0.1

Nonmanufacturing

18.286 94.1 96.4 1.0 -2.3 -9.3 2.4

Manufacturing

76.882 101.0 100.8 -0.1 -0.3 -0.5 -0.2

Japan

100.000 100.4 100.0 0.0 -0.3 -1.2 -0.4

Nonmanufacturing

14.587 96.9 95.5 0.1 -2.1 -7.4 -1.4

Manufacturing

84.438 101.0 100.9 0.0 0.1 0.0 -0.1

NOTES: Data may be revised in each of the 3 months after original publication.
Regions are not mutually exclusive.
Dash = Not available

Table 9. U.S. terms of trade indexes and percent changes by locality: August 2017 to August 2018 [December 2017=100, unless otherwise noted]
Description Index Percent change
July
2018
Aug.
2018
Annual Monthly
Aug.
2017
to
Aug.
2018
Apr.
2018
to
May
2018
May
2018
to
June
2018
June
2018
to
July
2018
July
2018
to
Aug.
2018

Industrialized Countries

99.4 99.9 -0.6 0.2 -0.3 0.5

Canada

99.1 100.7 -2.4 -0.1 0.0 1.6

European Union

101.3 101.1 0.0 0.2 -0.1 -0.2

Germany

104.5 104.1 -0.1 -0.2 0.0 -0.4

Latin America

101.5 102.5 0.2 0.8 -0.2 1.0

Mexico

103.1 103.3 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.2

Pacific Rim

99.8 99.4 0.3 -0.3 -1.0 -0.4

China

99.8 99.8 0.2 -0.6 -2.0 0.0

Japan

99.2 98.8 0.0 -0.2 -1.3 -0.4

NOTES: Data may be revised in each of the 3 months after original publication.
Regions are not mutually exclusive.
Dash = Not available

Table 10. U.S. international price indexes and percent changes for selected transportation services: August 2017 to August 2018 [2000=100, unless otherwise noted]
Description Relative
import-
ance
July
2018
Index Percent change
July
2018
Aug.
2018
Annual Monthly
Aug.
2017
to
Aug.
2018
Apr.
2018
to
May
2018
May
2018
to
June
2018
June
2018
to
July
2018
July
2018
to
Aug.
2018

Air Freight

Import Air Freight

100.000 188.5 187.4 3.0 1.7 -1.0 -2.3 -0.6

Europe (Dec. 2003=100)

23.983 149.0 147.6 2.0 1.3 -3.2 -0.3 -0.9

Asia

63.870 182.1 181.0 3.1 2.2 -0.3 -3.3 -0.6

Export Air Freight

100.000 163.9 162.9 3.4 0.7 0.0 -0.1 -0.6

Europe (Dec. 2006=100)

32.870 148.4 148.1 0.8 0.0 0.8 -0.4 -0.2

Inbound Air Freight

100.000 171.8 171.1 3.4 1.5 -0.2 -2.0 -0.4

Europe (Dec. 2003=100)

25.844 137.1 135.6 0.9 1.2 -2.2 0.1 -1.1

Asia

59.091 162.6 162.1 1.8 2.0 0.5 -2.9 -0.3

Outbound Air Freight

100.000 144.3 148.7 5.5 -1.4 -0.4 3.4 3.0

Europe (Dec. 2003=100)

32.881 147.9 148.1 1.4 0.4 0.2 -0.7 0.1

Asia

43.935 142.2 152.7 11.5 -3.7 -0.6 8.4 7.4

Air Passenger Fares

Import Air Passenger Fares

100.000 179.3 163.5 3.5 -2.5 7.3 -5.8 -8.8

Europe

41.449 200.3 175.8 8.3 -5.0 7.9 -8.5 -12.2

Asia

24.728 144.6 133.1 2.9 6.1 12.6 -7.9 -8.0

Latin America/Caribbean

9.754 164.4 157.5 -2.7 -8.0 4.6 2.3 -4.2

Export Air Passenger Fares

100.000 161.5 155.6 -3.3 -0.7 5.0 1.6 -3.7

Europe

30.548 213.1 189.4 4.3 -0.1 6.4 0.3 -11.1

Asia

27.000 142.3 145.2 -2.9 2.2 7.0 4.4 2.0

Latin America/Caribbean

23.398 164.6 162.1 -3.9 -5.3 4.0 0.9 -1.5

NOTES: Data may be revised in each of the 3 months after original publication.
Dash = Not available

                                         TECHNICAL NOTE 


Import and Export Goods and Services Price Indexes - All indexes use a modified Laspeyres 
formula and are not seasonally adjusted. Price indexes are reweighted annually, with a 2-year lag in the 
weights. Published series use a base year of 2000=100 where possible. More detailed index series and 
additional information may be obtained at www.bls.gov/mxp or by calling (202) 691-7101.

Merchandise Goods Classification Systems - The merchandise price indexes are published using three 
classification systems. Items are classified by end use according to the Bureau of Economic Analysis 
Classification System, by industry according to the North American Industry Classification System 
(NAICS), and by product category according to the Harmonized System (HS). While classification by 
end use and product category are self-explanatory, some notes are in order for classifying items by 
industry. In the NAICS imports and exports tables, items are classified by output industry, not input 
industry. As an example, NAICS import index 326 (plastics and rubber products manufacturing) 
includes outputs such as manufactured plastic rather than inputs such as petroleum. The NAICS 
classification structure also matches the classification system used by the Producer Price Index (PPI) to 
produce the NAICS primary products indexes.

Import Price Goods Indexes - Items are classified by the Harmonized Tariff Schedule of the United 
States Annotated (TSUSA). Import prices are based on U.S. dollar prices paid by the U.S. importer. The 
prices are generally either "free on board" (f.o.b.) foreign port or "cost, insurance, and freight" (c.i.f.) 
U.S. port transaction prices, depending on the practices of the individual industry. The index for crude 
petroleum is calculated from data collected by the U.S. Department of Energy. 

Export Price Goods Indexes - Items are classified by the Harmonized Schedule B classification 
system of the U.S. Bureau of the Census. The prices used are generally either "free alongside ship" 
(f.a.s.) factory or "free on board" (f.o.b.) transaction prices, depending on the practices of the individual 
industry. Prices used in the grain index, excluding rice, are obtained from the U.S. Department of 
Agriculture. 

Services Price Indexes - Indexes for import and export air passenger fares calculate changes in the 
average revenue received per passenger by foreign carriers from U.S. residents and by U.S. carriers from 
foreign residents, respectively. Data are obtained from an airline consulting service and report on tickets 
sold by travel agencies, travel websites, and directly by the airlines. Taxes and fees are included in both 
the import and export air passenger fares indexes. Import air passenger fares data have used the airline 
consulting service source since September 2008. Before April 2018, the export air passenger fares data 
were collected directly by BLS from U.S. airlines. The air freight indexes are calculated from data 
collected directly from airlines. These data exclude mail and passenger baggage. The scope of the 
service being priced is the movement of freight from airport to airport only, and does not include any 
ground transportation or port service. The air freight indexes are presented using two definitions: 
balance of payments (which represents transactions between U.S. and foreign residents) and 
international (which represents transactions inbound to and outbound from the United States.) Fact 
sheets specifying detailed information for each services industry are available at www.bls.gov/mxp 
under "MXP Publications." 

Import Price Indexes by Locality of Origin - Prices used in these indexes are a subset of the data 
collected for the import price indexes. The indexes are specific to a country, region, or grouping and, 
beginning with January 2002, are based on the North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) 
covering goods-producing industries. Nonmanufactured goods are defined as NAICS 11 and 21, and 
manufactured goods are defined as NAICS 31-33. 

Export Price Indexes by Locality of Destination - Prices used in these indexes are a subset of the data 
collected for the export price indexes. The indexes are specific to a country, region, or grouping and are 
based on the North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) covering goods-producing 
industries. Nonmanufactured goods are defined as NAICS 11 and 21, and manufactured goods are 
defined as NAICS 31-33. 

Terms of Trade Indexes - Terms of trade indexes measure the relative price of exports in terms of 
import prices for a specific country, region, or grouping. The indexes are calculated as one country, 
region, or grouping's all-export goods price index divided by the corresponding all-import goods price index 
on a scale of 100. 

Relative Importance - A relative importance is a specific index's price-updated value share (expressed 
as a percentage) of overall imports or exports at a specific point in time. Relative importance values are 
affected by the trade weights at the point indexes are reweighted and index changes relative to other 
indexes since the reweight point. If an index is rising in value relative to other indexes over time, the 
relative importance will increase as well. 

Revision Policy - To reflect the availability of late reports and corrections by respondents, monthly data 
may be revised in each of the 3 months after original publication. After 3 months, no further data 
revisions take place. For example, data first published in the January release will be subject to revision 
in the releases for February, March, and April. 

Rounding Policy - Index values are rounded to the tenth decimal place after being calculated. All 
percent changes are then derived from the rounded index values and subsequently rounded to the tenth 
decimal place. 

Uses of the Data - The primary use of the indexes is to deflate trade statistics, notably the foreign trade 
sector of the National Income and Product Accounts (NIPA) constructed by the Department of 
Commerce. Other published indexes are useful for general market analysis. For trade in international 
services, balance of payments indexes are used for deflating NIPA, while international indexes are more 
appropriate for market analysis. 

Email Subscription - The U.S. import and export price indexes news release is available through an 
email subscription service at www.bls.gov/bls/list.htm. 

Additional Information - More detailed data are available on the Import/Export Price Indexes home 
page at www.bls.gov/mxp. For import and export price indexes data requests, send an email to 
[email protected] 

Information from this release will be made available to sensory impaired individuals upon request. 
Voice phone: (202)-691-5200; Federal Relay Service: 1-(800)-877-8339.